Review: Once in a Great City–A Detroit Story

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Review: Once in a Great City--A Detroit Story

[cap­tion id=“attachment_81195” align=“alignright” width=“244”]Packard Packard plant, Detroit[/caption]

By John Ruberry

Two months after I returned from my urban explo­ration trip to Detroit David Maraniss’ Once in a Great City: A Detroit Story was published.

For me the tim­ing couldn’t have been bet­ter, As I drove west to my home in the Chicago area I mused, “What in the hell went wrong with Detroit?”

Maraniss, who was born in Detroit, is the author of biogra­phies of Bill Clin­ton, Vince Lom­bardi, and Barack Obama. More on the Obama book later.

After see­ing Chrysler’s two-​minute long Super Bowl com­mer­cial for the 200c that fea­tured the Motor City that aired five years ago, Maraniss won­dered the same thing I did and decided to write a Detroit book.

Rather than focus­ing on the deadly 1967 riots that has­tened white flight and the exit of thou­sands of busi­nesses, Maraniss zooms in on a period where Detroit seemed poised to join New York, Chicago, and Los Ange­les as an Amer­i­can Great City: the fall of 1962 through the spring of 1964. Detroit’s Big Three were build­ing cars than ever. The city’s long unful­filled goal of host­ing the Sum­mer Olympics finally seemed within reach. Lib­eral Demo­c­rat Jerome Cavanaugh, Detroit’s ver­sion of John F. Kennedy, was forward-​thinking on civil rights, as was Michigan’s Repub­li­can gov­er­nor, George Rom­ney. Motown Records was enjoy­ing its first taste of national expo­sure – with greater glory yet to come. The Rev­erend C.L. Franklin, father of Aretha Franklin, orga­nized a Civil Rights march led by Mar­tin Luther King; and MLK was warmly greeted at the air­port by Cavanaugh’s pick for police com­mis­sioner, another lib­eral, George Clifton Edwards, Jr. The pres­i­dent of the United Auto Work­ers, Wal­ter Reuther, was a promi­nent sup­porter of civil rights too.

[cap­tion id=“attachment_81196” align=“alignleft” width=“229”]Downtown Detroit from inside the abandoned Fisher Body 21 plant Down­town Detroit from inside the aban­doned Fisher Body 21 plant[/caption]

The foun­da­tion seemed solid for what was then American’s fifth-​most pop­u­lous city. But there were notice­able cracks. Shortly before the Inter­na­tional Olympic Com­mit­tee vote on its choice for host city of the 1968 sum­mer games, an open hous­ing bill in the Detroit Com­mon Coun­cil was over­whelm­ingly defeated, which led sup­port­ers of that bill to appeal to IOC mem­bers to deny Detroit the games. Local black nation­al­ist Albert Cleage was gain­ing sup­port and Mal­com X spoke at a Detroit church where he con­demned King’s call for non-​violence in his Mes­sage to the Grass Roots address, where the few whites in the audi­ence were forced to sit in their own sec­tion. Edwards’ push to pivot the Detroit Police Depart­ment away from its racist legacy was meet­ing resis­tance from rank-​and-​file cops and the DPD brass.

Inter­est­ingly, Maraniss inter­sperses excerpts from let­ters from white racists to Cavanaugh and Rom­ney sev­eral times in Once in a Great City. He also includes a quote from Rush Lim­baugh II about where he lived “prided itself that it never allowed a Negro to live in it and no Negro lived there permanently.”

What the heck does Rush Limbaugh’s father have to do with Detroit? Noth­ing. How­ever, in his Obama biog­ra­phy Maraniss points out many incon­sis­ten­cies – or should I say lies? – within the future president’s Dreams from My Father mem­oir. Rather than being happy about the unex­pected pub­lic­ity about the book from the con­ser­v­a­tive radio host and oth­ers, Maraniss responded in anger to those attacks on a pres­i­dent that he sup­ports. Which explains the author’s end-​around attack on the younger Lim­baugh. Such pet­ti­ness has no place in a seri­ous book.

[cap­tion id=“attachment_81198” align=“alignright” width=“257”]Michigan Bungalows in Grixdale Farms Michi­gan Bun­ga­lows in Grix­dale Farms[/caption]

Some­thing else hap­pened in 1962 in Detroit that would has­ten its demise, which Maraniss men­tions only twice. Three months before the time­line of this book begins, Detroit’s munic­i­pal and com­muter income taxes went into effect. Those are good rea­sons not to live or work in such a place.

Near the end of the book Pres­i­dent Lyn­don B. John­son, after depart­ing from Air Force One in Detroit on his way to the Uni­ver­sity of Michi­gan to give what became known as his Great Soci­ety Speech, offered remarks that seem com­i­cal today. “Pros­per­ity in Amer­ica must begin here in Detroit,” he told cheer­ing crowds brought in for the occa­sion. “You folks in Detroit put Amer­i­can cit­i­zens on wheels, you have the Amer­i­can econ­omy on the move. Unem­ploy­ment in Detroit is down, prof­its are up, wages are good, and there is no prob­lem too tough or too chal­leng­ing for us to solve.”

But for LBJ Big Gov­ern­ment was the solu­tion to every prob­lem. The Model Cities pro­gram, which Cavanaugh bought into big-​time, was per­haps one of the biggest deba­cles of the Great Society.

Despite its flaws I heartily rec­om­mend this book. Because another city – Chicago per­haps, which also recently bid on an Olympics – may be the next Detroit.

Or per­haps your city is next.

John Ruberry reg­u­larly blogs at Marathon Pun­dit.

Packard
Packard plant, Detroit

By John Ruberry

Two months after I returned from my urban exploration trip to Detroit David Maraniss’ Once in a Great City: A Detroit Story was published.

For me the timing couldn’t have been better, As I drove west to my home in the Chicago area I mused, “What in the hell went wrong with Detroit?”

Maraniss, who was born in Detroit, is the author of biographies of Bill Clinton, Vince Lombardi, and Barack Obama. More on the Obama book later.

After seeing Chrysler’s two-minute long Super Bowl commercial for the 200c that featured the Motor City that aired five years ago, Maraniss wondered the same thing I did and decided to write a Detroit book.

Rather than focusing on the deadly 1967 riots that hastened white flight and the exit of thousands of businesses, Maraniss zooms in on a period where Detroit seemed poised to join New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles as an American Great City: the fall of 1962 through the spring of 1964. Detroit’s Big Three were building cars than ever. The city’s long unfulfilled goal of hosting the Summer Olympics finally seemed within reach. Liberal Democrat Jerome Cavanaugh, Detroit’s version of John F. Kennedy, was forward-thinking on civil rights, as was Michigan’s Republican governor, George Romney. Motown Records was enjoying its first taste of national exposure–with greater glory yet to come. The Reverend C.L. Franklin, father of Aretha Franklin, organized a Civil Rights march led by Martin Luther King; and MLK was warmly greeted at the airport by Cavanaugh’s pick for police commissioner, another liberal, George Clifton Edwards, Jr. The president of the United Auto Workers, Walter Reuther, was a prominent supporter of civil rights too.

Downtown Detroit from inside the abandoned Fisher Body 21 plant
Downtown Detroit from inside the abandoned Fisher Body 21 plant

The foundation seemed solid for what was then American’s fifth-most populous city. But there were noticeable cracks. Shortly before the International Olympic Committee vote on its choice for host city of the 1968 summer games, an open housing bill in the Detroit Common Council was overwhelmingly defeated, which led supporters of that bill to appeal to IOC members to deny Detroit the games. Local black nationalist Albert Cleage was gaining support and Malcom X spoke at a Detroit church where he condemned King’s call for non-violence in his Message to the Grass Roots address, where the few whites in the audience were forced to sit in their own section. Edwards’ push to pivot the Detroit Police Department away from its racist legacy was meeting resistance from rank-and-file cops and the DPD brass.

Interestingly, Maraniss intersperses excerpts from letters from white racists to Cavanaugh and Romney several times in Once in a Great City. He also includes a quote from  Rush Limbaugh II about where he lived “prided itself that it never allowed a Negro to live in it and no Negro lived there permanently.”

What the heck does Rush Limbaugh’s father have to do with Detroit? Nothing. However, in his Obama biography Maraniss points out many inconsistencies–or should I say lies?–within the future president’s Dreams from My Father memoir. Rather than being happy about the unexpected publicity about the book from the conservative radio host and others, Maraniss responded in anger to those attacks on a president that he supports. Which explains the author’s end-around attack on the younger Limbaugh. Such pettiness has no place in a serious book.

Michigan Bungalows in Grixdale Farms
Michigan Bungalows in Grixdale Farms

Something else happened in 1962 in Detroit that would hasten its demise, which Maraniss mentions only twice. Three months before the timeline of this book begins, Detroit’s municipal and commuter income taxes went into effect. Those are good reasons not to live or work in such a place.

Near the end of the book President Lyndon B. Johnson, after departing from Air Force One in Detroit on his way to the University of Michigan to give what became known as his Great Society Speech, offered remarks that seem comical today. “Prosperity in America must begin here in Detroit,” he told cheering crowds brought in for the occasion. “You folks in Detroit put American citizens on wheels, you have the American economy on the move. Unemployment in Detroit is down, profits are up, wages are good, and there is no problem too tough or too challenging for us to solve.”

But for LBJ Big Government was the solution to every problem. The Model Cities program, which Cavanaugh bought into big-time, was perhaps one of the biggest debacles of the Great Society.

Despite its flaws I heartily recommend this book. Because another city–Chicago perhaps, which also recently bid on an Olympics–may be the next Detroit.

Or perhaps your city is next.

John Ruberry regularly blogs at Marathon Pundit.